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Ensuring controlled environment in hospitals and other healthcare facilities

Problem context:

Maintaining hospital premises at a certain temperature and a certain relative humidity (%rh), likely to reduce the airborne survival and therefore transmission of harmful viruses. Temperature and RH settings in different parts of a hospital differ slightly between summer and winter. In summer, the recommended room temperatures range from 23°C-27°C in the ER (emergency room), including in-patient and out-patient areas, as well as X-ray and treatment rooms and offices. The corresponding recommended RH is fairly constant throughout the hospital, between 50- 60%rh. In winter, the recommended temperatures are generally slightly lower, ranging from 20°C in some in-patient and out-patient areas, as well as offices, up to 24°C -26°C in in-patient and out-patient areas.

Occupant comfort, infection control, and drying of mucous coating are some reasons why temperature and humidity control are important in surgery rooms. Temperature and humid¬ity ranges, and minimum air-change rates often are prescribed by local codes or by industry-accepted guidelines.

Surgeons also have preferences when it comes to temperature and humidity conditions. Reasons for these prefer¬ences range from personal comfort while dressed in heavy surgery clothing to the perception of superior procedure success rates. Often, the result is that the surgeon expects a lower room temperature than that stated in guidelines.

The recommendations for the newborn baby and the hydrotherapy treatment rooms are higher at 27°C –28°C. Again, the corresponding recommended range of RH is fairly constant, but slightly lower than for summer, ranging from 40%rh -50%rh, but up to 55%rh–60%rh for more critical areas, such as operating theatres and recovery, the intensive care unit and childbirth/delivery suites.

Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting virus survival, as it can affect the state of viral proteins and the virus genome. Virus survival decreases progressively at 20.5°C –24°C then < 30°C temperatures. This relationship with temperature held throughout humidity range of 23%rh- 81%rh.

RH (expressed in percentage) describes the amount of water vapor held in the air at a specific temperature at any time, relative to the maximum amount of water vapor that air at that temperature could possibly hold.

At higher temperatures, air can hold more water vapor, and the relationship is roughly exponential—air at high temperatures can hold much more water vapor than air at lower temperatures.

->Why do we need to measure relative humidity?

Virus: The survival of viruses and other infectious agents depends partially on levels of RH. At a temperature of 21°C, influenza survival is lowest at a mid-range 40%rh–60%rh. It is also important to note that temperature and RH will always interact to affect the survival of airborne viruses in aerosols.

At High temperatures < 30°C and at high RH < 50%rh may reduce the survival of airborne influenza virus.

Bacteria : For bacteria, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO), enhanced the death rate at less than 25%rh, but protects the bacteria at higher RH ~ 90%rh.

->Temperatures above about 24°C appear to universally decrease airborne bacterial survival.

Fungi: Ventilation systems controlling Temperature and Humidity have a significant effect on indoor levels of airborne fungi, with air-handling units reducing, but natural ventilation and fan-coil units increasing the indoor concentrations of airborne fungi.

Solution:

Cargozipper’s CZIOT platform is a next generation technology platform provides a wireless sensor network to hospitals with an intent to monitor in real-time different parameters to control ambient environment and prevent some diseases that could affect health of patients and comfort of doctors.

The solution can be architecturally conceptualized as under:

The main goal of our platform is to enable Real-time monitoring and keep the ambient environment within the recommended levels.Our platform is fully equipped with high quality and durable hardware(sensors and micro-controllers) and utilizes the next generation internet of things(IOT) technology to stream real time data to our cloud platform which makes customer acquisition as very simple and scalable depending on the demands and also have low maintenance costs.

The ambient environment at a hospital is controlled by the following parameters:
• Temperature
• Humidity

CZIOT Hardware module communicate with our cloud platform through any one of Ethernet/Wi-FI/3G-GPRS. It allows to control in real-time the level of different parameters within the recommended levels.

Outcome :

CZIOT can assist you to retain the ambient environment in the hospital premise within recommended levels.

Maintaining hospital premises at a certain temperature and a certain relative humidity (%rh), likely to reduce the airborne survival and therefore transmission of harmful viruses in addition to maintaining ambient environment at the hospital premise.

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